Press release: 21 December 2021

Court win: Game over for plastics lobby in BPA human health impacts case

The Court of Justice of the EU has confirmed that bisphenol A (BPA) – a chemical used to make plastics – must be listed as a “substance of very high concern” for its hormone-disrupting properties on the human body.


Following scientific work done by the French authorities, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) identified BPA as hazardous for the endocrine system – and therefore of very high concern. With today’s ruling, the Court rejected the final attempt by lobby group PlasticsEurope to reverse ECHA’s decision – so BPA will stay on the official list of substances of very high concern. PlasticsEurope cannot appeal this judgment.

BPA is used in the manufacture of food containers, plastic bottles and receipts. It is already banned in the EU for some products – such as baby bottles. France has banned BPA in all food packaging, containers and utensils.


Alice Bernard, in-house lawyer at environmental law charity ClientEarth, intervener in the case, said: “BPA is one of the most studied chemicals and its hormone-disrupting properties for humans are well-documented. The Court confirmed that ECHA’s decision to flag BPA as a ‘substance of very high concern’ was legal and grounded in science. ECHA and the French authorities should be praised – this is not only a victory for public health, but also shows that public authorities can and should resist to industry pressures.

“We know there are still many hormone-disrupting chemicals not yet recognised as such under EU law. It’s up to the EU Commission and national public authorities to initiate actions to fill the gaps. This judgment undoubtedly strengthens their hand and needs to be a catalyst for further action. The industry needs to invest in alternatives rather than spend resources in fighting much-needed regulation in court.”

In 2015, the non-profit organisation ChemSec identified 32 endocrine-disrupting chemicals that needed to be added as a priority to the official EU list of “substances of very high concern”. Since then, only three of those (DCHP and 3-Benzylidene camphor 3-BC, Butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) have been listed as endocrine-disrupting chemicals.


Notes to editors:

The official EU list of “substances of very high concern” (SVHC) under REACH means manufacturers have a duty to communicate information on the substance to customers, clients and public authorities but it is also a signal sent to the market to invest in alternatives.

PlasticsEurope has taken ECHA to court on three separate occasions:

  • In 2019, PlasticsEurope lost a first casechallenging the decision to make BPA an SVHC based on its properties as toxic for reproduction.
  • In 2019, PlasticsEurope also lost a second case challenging the decision to make BPA an SVHC based on its endocrine-disrupting for humans.
  • Today, PlasticsEurope lost its appeal on this second casechallenging the decision to make BPA a SVHC based on its endocrine-disrupting properties for humans.
  • In 2020, PlasticsEurope lost a third casechallenging the decision to make BPA an SVHC based on its endocrine-disrupting properties for wildlife. They decided to appeal the judgment and the appeal is pending.

In all three cases, ClientEarth acted as intervener – supporting the defendant ECHA in its defence together with France and Germany against PlasticsEurope’s challenge before the EU courts.

About ClientEarth

ClientEarth is a non-profit organisation that uses the law to create systemic change that protects the Earth for – and with – its inhabitants. We are tackling climate change, protecting nature and stopping pollution, with partners and citizens around the globe. We hold industry and governments to account, and defend everyone’s right to a healthy world. From our offices in Europe, Asia and the USA we shape, implement and enforce the law, to build a future for our planet in which people and nature can thrive together.