Coal in Europe:
It’s time to stop digging
Europe has a coal problem
Climate change means droughts, floods, rising sea levels, extreme weather and nature loss.
How much carbon dioxide we release will decide how serious these impacts are. Burning coal is a major contributor.
To protect the climate, coal’s share of global electricity supply must be cut to 2% by 2050.
But governments in the EU hand out billions in subsidies to prop up coal every year.
And coal’s toxic problems don’t end with climate change.
What’s wrong with coal?
It’s well known that coal plays a major part in driving climate change.
What are less widely known are coal’s insidious health effects.
Between coal dust, ash and stack emissions, the coal industry exposes everyone to mercury, arsenic, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, all of which pose proven and serious health risks.
In Bulgaria, figures show the rate of lung disease is dramatically elevated in the areas around coal plants. Meanwhile, a recent US study showed that the rate of premature births fell in areas near coal power plants when they closed.
Coal is terrible for your health. It’s also bad for your environment.
As well as causing air pollution, water discharged from plants can heat waterways making them uninhabitable for fish and other wildlife. Mercury often finds its way into local waterways as well, further damaging the ecosystem.
I lead ClientEarth’s team of lawyers tackling Europe’s toxic problem.
The EU needs to stop burning coal for power by 2030 if we are to have a chance to stop catastrophic climate change. We use the law in the EU and beyond to help make this a reality.
The law can help shape a clean energy future for Europe
We use environmental laws to challenge highly polluting coal plants and force them either to invest to prevent pollution, or to shut down.
We use State aid law – which governs subsidies – to challenge governments that prop up unprofitable coal companies with taxpayers’ money.
And we use energy markets laws to promote the transition to an energy system based on renewables and other clean tech – and which no longer relies on coal.
The challenge is huge but we’re gaining ground.
Which chemicals are released when you burn coal?
There’s no such thing as clean coal. The costs to our health and to the health of our planet are enormous. Here are just some of the heavy metals and other harmful chemicals released when coal is burned:
Does coal cause climate change?
Yes, it does.
In fact, coal is the worst fossil fuel for greenhouse gas emissions.
The EU’s coal plants are almighty carbon emitters. One power plant alone – Poland’s Belchatow – emits four times as much as Ryanair’s entire fleet of passenger planes every year.
To have any chance of meeting the climate goals laid out in the global Paris Agreement, we have to move beyond coal by 2030. Europe can do this – but there is too little progress and too little ambition.
There are more than 250 plants left in Europe – and plans to build more, even as others struggle to earn their keep. We have to stop this. Too many communities have been robbed of their homes and futures, and too many people are being robbed of their health.
Coal pollutes at every stage
From when it’s extracted until it’s burnt, coal is a pollution disaster.
The villages killed by coal
It’s well known that coal plays a major part in driving catastrophic climate change. Increasingly, the impacts of coal are being recognised as a human rights issue as well but the realities of living next to a coal mine have to be experienced to be believed. Across Europe, coal mines are still being expanded, destroying homes, farm land and whole communities. Nearby residents live in fear for their safety or instead choose to flee. Here’s how we’re taking action:
We’re supporting Bulgarian resident Elka Tiškina, from Pernik, to take legal action against the authorities after her house was left uninhabitable by illegal coal mining in 2015. Serious subsidence has left the house, previously inhabited by Ms. Tiškina’s mother, too dangerous now to live in. We know that local authorities were well aware of illegal mining happening and failed to take any action to stop it.
After a long court battle in Bulgaria, our lawyers are supporting Ms. Tiškina with her challenge against the city at the European Courts of Human Rights.
We’re supporting villagers in Germany to take on energy giant RWE – owner of some of Germany’s most polluting coal plants and mines. Under an area of four villages in western Germany is a reserve of lignite that RWE want to use to feed nearby coal power plants. The area would be turned into a vast opencast mine - and the villages and homes demolished. Local residents are formally refusing to sell the land. They believe that forced evictions for coal are no longer justifiable, given Germany has agreed to phase out coal by 2038. Read more about their story.
In Zloczew, Poland, 3,000 people are waiting to find out if they have to leave their homes as giant power plant Belchatow seeks a fresh source of coal. The Zloczew mine, if it goes ahead, would be the deepest mine ever constructed in Poland. Explosives would have to be used to blast away millions of tonnes of rock to get to the coal – deafening for the residents and devastating for the environment.
ClientEarth has launched a legal challenge to block the mine – with its long list of hazards, it should not have got the green light.
Inhabitants of Anargyroi, Western Macedonia, were evacuated in 2017. The mine on its doorstep caused a major landslide, leaving the villagers to jump in their cars and leave.
It’s a sad place to be, now. A beautiful community hall with portraits and paintings largely abandoned, cafés with outdoor ovens left empty, a rusted bus stop, scrawled farewell messages to the village painted on the walls. Just 20 people live here now, out of the original 500. They are still waiting for compensation.
Emil Mirchev’s family has farmed the land he lives on, in Bulgaria, for generations. Now, a coal company plans to take that land over, creating a mine in place of kilometres of fertile land and decimating the local water supply. The landscape will change irreparably.
So with our support, Emil has taken legal action to fight the mine that would put a stop to the way of life of hundreds of people.
What is ClientEarth doing to end coal in Europe?
“There are more than 250 coal power plants left in Europe. But across the continent action is not happening fast enough.
In Poland, where I’m based, coal remains king. Europe’s most disastrous coal plant, Belchatow, continues to blight lives. We are fighting it.
Turkey has plans to build around 50 more plants. Germany is clinging to coal, under pressure from industry: seven of Europe’s top ten worst carbon emitters are in Germany.
In the UK, the pledged 2025 coal phase-out still hasn’t been written into law.
Governments across the EU are still breathing life into coal with major subsidies. Europe needs to get a grip on its coal problem.
ClientEarth is using the law to force action on coal
We have live legal challenges across the EU from Spain to Bulgaria. We’re committed to fighting the injustices that let coal ruin lives. You can explore our actions against coal below. We’re grateful for your support.”
Where we’re taking action…
The massive financial support granted to Poland’s energy sector does not boost the development of green energy. Most of it goes to coal plants.
Fossil fuel and petrochemical businesses have found a way to monetise the possibility that a global response to climate change might reduce demand for fossil fuels: their plan B is plastic.
ClientEarth uses law to tackle the climate crisis. We pair up with lawyers and charities throughout Europe to fight dirty coal. Maria Jolie Veder, one of our energy lawyers, tells us how we work with local experts to help people take on polluting coal.
Following legal action Greece has ruled to annul the environmental permits for two state-owned lignite-fired power plants. This is the new normal in a country that is speeding towards a coal phase-out.
There are alternatives to coal
Clean, renewable energy is already gaining ground.
Changing our energy system will limit the impact of climate change, protect our health and safeguard nature.
Decision-makers need to choose the right policies. Governments need to support the right industries.
Communities need the opportunities to get behind clean energy.
We’re working to support all these changes, to make clean energy across Europe a reality.